College Catalogue


Douglas Ambrose

Celeste Day Moore
John T. Eldevik
Kevin P. Grant
Maurice Isserman
Shoshana Keller, Chair
Alfred H. Kelly
Robert L. Paquette
Lisa N. Trivedi
Thomas A. Wilson

A concentration in history consists of 10 courses. Each concentrator must take a Writing Intensive 100-level history course, and no more than two 100-level courses may be counted toward the concentration. A concentrator must also take at least four courses at the 300 level or higher.

A concentrator's courses must provide acquaintance with a minimum of three areas from among Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, Russia and the United States. At least three courses must focus upon areas outside of Europe and the United States. [Starting with the Class of 2012, at least one course must focus on the U.S., one course on Europe, and three courses on Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, or Russia.] A concentrator in history must also take at least one course in premodern history. The department encourages concentrators to develop competence in a foreign language and to use that competence in their historical reading and research. To earn departmental honors, concentrators must have completed at least one year of college-level study in a foreign language.

Concentrators may fulfill the department’s Senior Program requirement through satisfactory completion of either of the following options:

Research Seminar (401). Concentrators may fulfill the Senior Program requirement through satisfactory completion (a grade of at least C-) of the research seminar. This course may emphasize the critical evaluation of scholarship in a specific field, culminating in a historiographical essay or primary research culminating in an original essay.

Independent Senior Thesis (550: one course credit). Concentrators with a departmental grade point average of 3.7 or higher may, with the permission of the department, pursue an individual project under the direct supervision of a member of the department. To earn departmental honors, concentrators must have a departmental grade point average of 3.7 or above in their coursework by the end of the sixth semester and earn a grade of A- or higher for the independent senior thesis. Finally, to earn departmental honors, concentrators must have completed at least one year of college-level study in a foreign language and make a public presentation of the senior thesis.

A minor in history consists of five courses, of which one must be at the 100 level and at least one must be at the 300 level or higher, as approved by the department. Only one 100-level course will count toward a minor.

A student wishing to be certified to teach social studies in grades 7-12 should contact Susan Mason, director of the Education Studies Program, as early as possible.

100F Murder, Civil War, and Opera.
Ivan the Terrible murdered his heir, and left Russia to face economic collapse and mass hunger without a stable government. Then things got really bad. Did Boris Godunov murder Tsarevich Dmitri? Was the First False Dmitri for real? Only Pushkin knew for sure, but it took Modest Musorgsky to wrap it up in the greatest Russian opera of all time. This course will explore the relationships between history, art and national identity in Russia. (Writing-intensive.) Maximum enrollment, 20. Shoshana Keller.

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102F Atlantic World in the Era of the Slave Trade.
Survey of the development of the world economy from the 15th to the 19th centuries, with emphasis on the interrelations of Western Europe, Africa and the Americas. Stress on basic skills in the study of history. (Writing-intensive.) Maximum enrollment, 20. Paquette.

104S Europe and its Empires, 1500-2000.
A survey of European exploration, imperial expansion and post-colonial society. Examines European debates over the principles and objectives of imperialism in the Americas, the Pacific and Africa. Illuminates changing views toward culture, economics, race, gender and nationality. Stress upon basic skills in the interpretation of historical texts and writing. (Writing-intensive.) Maximum enrollment, 20. Grant.

109F,S Early Modern Western Europe, 1450-1800.
Survey of transformation of Western Europe from the Renaissance through the French Revolution. Focuses on social, political, economic and intellectual developments; examination of primary sources and secondary studies. Stress on basic skills in the study of history. (Writing-intensive.) Writing Intensive in the fall. Maximum enrollment, 20. Ambrose.

110F An Introduction to the History of the United States, 1492-1861.
Introduction to U.S. history and the exploration and settlement of British North America, the encounter between Europeans and Native Americans, the colonial era, the American Revolution, the Federalist Era, and 19th-century U.S. history including the growing national division over slavery, concluding with the onset of the Civil War. Paquette.

111S An Introduction to the History of the United States, 1861-2001.
Introduction to U.S. history and an overview of the Civil War and Reconstruction, the emergence of the U.S. as a global power, progressivism and the New Deal, the Cold War, the liberal and radical insurgencies of the 1960s, and the conservative revival of the 1970s to the present. Isserman.

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117F Europe Since 1815.
A survey of European history in a global context since the Napoleonic period. Focuses on political, social, economic and cultural developments. Stress on basic skills in the study of history. (Writing-intensive.) Maximum enrollment, 20. Kelly.

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124S Silk Road.
The silk roads were a network of trade routes from China to the Mediterranean Sea. This course explores ancient Eurasian trade, language, religion, art and power as Chinese, Turks, Persians, Arabs, Greeks, Mongols and many others interacted across vast distances. We will study how historians think, considering texts, archeology, linguistics, and art as sources of evidence. (Writing-intensive.) Stress on basic skills in the study of history. Maximum enrollment, 20. Keller.

[144S] Indian Buddhism.
The course explores Indian Buddhism by studying essential beliefs, doctrines, institutions, and popular practices. The origins and establishment of Buddhism in ancient India, traditional interpretations of the Buddha’s teachings (Dharma), growth and development of the Buddhist community (Sangha), Buddhist practices and transmission in different areas of South Asia, and the revival of Buddhism are among the topics. Participants engage with analysis and discussion of readings from secondary textbooks as well as original literary, epigraphic, and archaeological sources. (Writing-intensive.) (Same as Religious Studies 144.) Maximum enrollment, 20.

[146S] Christianity to 1500.
A survey of the origins and development of the Christian religion in its social, political, and cultural contexts from the first century CE to the eve of the Protestant Reformation. Special consideration will be given to questions of orthodoxy versus heresy, the cult of saints, and the impact of Christian theology on the construction of class, gender, and identity in medieval Europe. Stress on basic skills in the study of history. (Writing-intensive.) (Same as Religious Studies 146.) Maximum enrollment, 20.

150S Myth and History of the Middle Ages.
Here’s the inside scoop on all those stories you’ve heard about medieval history! This course will critically examine famous battles, trials, scandals, plagues, and books that changed the course of history in the Middle Ages, and perhaps of Western Civilization itself. Or did they? From the barbarian invasions to Viking raids to the origins of the Renaissance, nothing is really as it seems when we start asking what the original sources really say and what we can really know about the past. (Writing-intensive.) Stress on basic skills in the study of history. Maximum enrollment, 20. Eldevik.

154F,S Race and Empire in Modern America, 1890 - Present.
The course will closely examine race and empire in the late-nineteenth and twentieth-century United States. Drawing on novels, essays, poetry, visual representations, sound recordings, course discussions will consider the reproduction of race alongside the growth of US economic, cultural, political, and military power overseas, including Africa, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America. The course will not only reveal how imperial networks have shaped racial categories in the United States but also clarify the formation of transnational political and cultural affiliations (eg, Pan-Africanism, anticolonialism, hip-hop, and mestizo culture). (Writing-intensive.) Stress on basic skills in the study of history. Maximum enrollment, 20. Day Moore.

160F Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean.
This introductory survey traces the history of the medieval world following the breakup of the Roman empire in the fifth century through the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. Special emphasis will be given to the Mediterranean as an evolving locus of cultural and religious interaction, exchange, and conflict between the Latin West, Byzantine East, and Islamic realms of North Africa and the Middle East. Readings for the course will be drawn mainly from primary sources. Eldevik.

[175F] Europe and the World since 1815.
A survey of European history in a global context since the Napoleonic period. Focuses on political, social, economic, and cultural developments and their influences outside of Europe. Topics include imperialism; the Ottoman Empire in World War I; the spread of European ideologies; decolonization; and recent immigration to Europe.

178F South Africa: From Colonialism to Democracy.
South African history from the Dutch settlement in 1652 to the development of a multiracial democracy after 1994. Reading and discussions will focus on the colonial experience of South Africa, emphasizing issues of labor, race, and gender. These issues will be explored through the experiences of indigenous peoples, migrant laborers, the 'coloured' community, Afrikaners, and British settlers. Then we will examine how civil rights activists attempted to bridge the divides of South Africa, while struggling against the brutal oppression of the segregationist apartheid regime. Not open to students who have taken H278 Grant.

180F Exploring Culture in the Great Cities of Asia.
An interdisciplinary exploration of Asian cultures through cities in China, India and Japan from early times to the 20th century. Examines the history and geography of greater Asia; its diverse peoples and their philosophical and literary traditions; their religious and commercial practices; and their art. (Writing-intensive.) (Same as Asian Studies 180.) Maximum enrollment, 20. Trivedi and Wilson.

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[202F] Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
The Dark Ages aren't what they used to be! This course surveys the social, economic and religious history in Europe and the Mediterranean from ca. 200 to 1000 AD, with particular attention to questions of continuity between the Roman Empire and its successors states in the east and west, the rise of Christianity and Islam, and the creation of new ethnic identities and social structures in the post-Roman world.

[203] African-American History to 1877.
Traces African-American history from the slave trade through the end of Reconstruction. Course material will include secondary and primary sources, including slave narratives, court documents, photography, music, and advertisements. The course will consider broad themes, including agency and resistance, the relationship of race to categories of gender, class, and sexuality, and the meaning of freedom. (Same as Africana Studies 203.)

204S African-American History from 1877 to the Present.
Examines the history of African Americans in the post-emancipation United States, looking closely at black communities during periods of industrialization, migration, war, and globalization. Lectures and discussion will draw on primary sources, including films, novels, poetry, radio and television, and speeches. Conversations will focus on the diversity of experiences and identities that have comprised the African-American experience in the United States. (Same as Africana Studies 204.) Day Moore.

[207S] Europe and the Mediterranean 1000-1500.
The course will explore the civilization of the High and Late Middle Ages, from the Crusades to the Black Death and the Age of Exploration, with a particular focus on the growth of the commercial economy, the development of royal states and the papal monarchy, and the cultural impact of expanding contacts between western Europe and the wider Mediterranean and Near Eastern worlds. Readings will draw from a wide range of sources, from philosophical treatises, to travelogues, to mystical vision literature and vernacular poetry.

[212F] Modern Germany: 1789 to the Present.
Political, cultural and social developments, with emphasis on the authoritarian versus the liberal tradition, unity and modernization, the World Wars, Nazi tyranny, postwar division and unification.

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[213] Literature and History of the British Empire.
This course examines the British Empire by juxtaposing literary texts and a variety of historical sources. It develops thematic subjects such as the civilizing mission and the violence of imperial rule, and it introduces students to literary and historical methodologies. It mainly addresses British representations of and relationships with Ireland, India, and Africa, highlighting both British and colonial writers. Authors include Schreiner, Conrad, Kipling, Tagore, and Bowen. Prerequisite, one course in history or English. (Same as English and Creative Writing 213.)

[214F] Revolutions.
During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the transatlantic world experienced a period of unprecedented upheaval, which, arguably, usherd in the modern world. The word "revolution" itself was transformed in meaning. This course will explore at both a theoretical and empirical level four revolutions: the American Revolution, the French revolution, the Haitian Revolution, and the Spanish American wars of liberation. What accounts for the disaffection? How did the causes, content, and consequences of these movements differ?

215F The American Civil War.
Examines the causes, conduct and legacy of the American Civil War, with particular attention to the debate over slavery, the divergent social, economic and cultural development of the southern and northern states, the religious dimension of the war, battle front strategy and home front mobilization, the politics of emancipation, reconstruction, redemption and reconciliation, and the Civil War in popular memory down to the present. Ambrose.

217F Social History of Latin America.
Iberian America since the Conquest, emphasizing social structure and social change. Covers colonial background to modern Latin American societies, but focuses on late-19th century and twentieth century in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina. (Same as Sociology 217.) Gilbert.

[220] Contemporary Culture and Politics in India.
Cultural and political-economic dynamics in post-colonial India. Traverses early and more recent anthropological approaches to rural village social structure, including dimensions of hierarchy, gender, religion, communication and economy; relatively recent transformations in expressions thereof that are national in scope; and relatively new considerations of the importance of media, including cultural productions disseminated through audio-cassettes, film and television, as the economy undergoes neo-liberal transformations. Prerequisite, one course in anthropology, History/Asian Studies 180 or consent of instructor.

221F Early Russian History From Rurik to Alexander II.
A survey of Russian history from Kievan Rus’ to the Great Reforms of Alexander II. Emphasis on the development of Russia from scattered principalities to empire and the struggle for an identity between Europe and Asia. (Same as Russian Studies 221.) Keller.

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222S Modern Russian History.
Russia from the 1861 emancipation of the serfs to the present. Study of revolution and continuity throughout the modern period, with an emphasis on the multi-national character of the Russian/Soviet state. (Same as Russian Studies 222.) Keller.

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223S Gender and Violence in the Middle Ages.
This course serves as an introduction to the field of Medieval and Renaissance Studies. Drawing on multiple disciplinary perspectives, including those of literature, law, history, and art, we will examine the intersection of ideas about the body, gender, and violence in the European Middle Ages. Readings may include the Bible and early patristic writings; the lives of saints; poems and advice manuals on courtly love; depictions of women in the Crusades; Icelandic sagas; and perspectives on the trial of Joan of Arc. (Oral Presentations.) Prerequisite, One 100-level course in literature or history, or AP 4 or 5 in English or history. (Same as English and Creative Writing 223 and Medieval and Renaissance Studies 223.) Maximum enrollment, 24. Katherine Terrell and John Eldevik.

225F History of European Thought: 1600-1830.
Origins and development of the modern Western mind. Emphasis on the Scientific Revolution, modern political theories, the rise of secularism, the Philosophes and the Enlightenment, romanticism, conservatism, nationalism and German idealism. Kelly.

226S History of European Thought: 1830 to the Present.
Intellectual responses to the modern world. Emphasis on liberalism, positivism, Marxism, Darwinism, racism, the challenge of Nietzsche, the rise of social sciences and historicism, discovery of the unconscious, the problem of the masses, fascism, communism and existentialism. Kelly.

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[229F] The American Founding: Ideals and Reality.
An intensive analysis of the philosophical ideals of the Founding Era (1763-1800) and their uneven realization. Social histories of various races, genders and classes will help illuminate the inherent ambiguities, weaknesses, strengths and legacies of the social and political philosophies of late 18th-century America. Prerequisite, Government 117, Philosophy 117 or a 100-level course in history. May count toward a concentration in either history or government. Not open to students who have taken History 240 or 374. (Same as College Courses and Seminars 229 and Government 229.) Maximum enrollment, 24.

230F Britain, Ireland, Empire, 1485-1688.
This course examines the shifting boundaries of sovereignty and religion in Britain and Ireland in the period from the founding of the Tudor monarchy to the Glorious Revolution. It simultaneously shows how England developed its power overseas through trade, colonization, and privateering. This course illuminates the disparate, multicultural societies over which the English monarchy extended its rule, demonstrating how tumultuous struggles to consolidate and sustain political authority in the ‘Atlantic archipelago’ corresponded with the global expansion of British commerce. Grant.

[231S] Britain, Ireland, Empire, 1688-2007.
This course examines the fraught relationship between Great Britain and Ireland from the Glorious Revolution to the era of New Labour and the Good Friday peace accord. It shows how British society was transformed by commerce and industrialization, and how the development and eventual collapse of the overseas empire influenced British politics and culture. In addressing the post-imperial era, the course places emphasis on the Cold War, the effects of the decline of Britain’s industrial economy, and immigration from the Commonwealth.

[235F] Women in Modern Asia.
Key dimensions of women’s relationships to colonial and national states in Asia during the 20th century. Introduction to distinct cultural systems in Asia with emphasis on how religion, ethnicity and class shape lives of women in Asian societies. Roles of women in politics, economics and social reform under both colonial and national states. Extensive use of biography, autobiography and memoir. (Same as Women's Studies 235.)

239S The Making of Modern India, 1526-1947.
An intermediate-level survey of the history of South Asia from the Mughal Empire to independence. Comparative emphasis upon changes in social identities, political systems and economic life. Primary documents draw forward the perspective of rulers, merchants, women, reformers, workers, colonial officials and nationalists. Not open to first-year students in the fall. Trivedi.

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[240] The Era of the American Revolution.
The American War of Independence gave birth to the modern world's first constitutional republic and fed a long struggle between the Revolution's ideals of republicanism and liberty. This course will consider the military campaigns as well as political and cultural influences in the revolutionary era: Reformed Protestantism, English governmental traditions, and the imperial crisis. The course will also provide an overview of the progress of the colonial crisis from the French and Indian War, the Revolutionary War, the “critical period,” and the formation of the new Constitution.

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241F American Colonial History.
A survey of early America from European contact through the Revolution, with emphasis on Indian relations, settlement patterns, political, economic and social development, religious and cultural life, and regional similarities and differences. Not open to first-year students. Ambrose.

242S The Old South.
Examination of the development of Southern society from European settlement through the Confederacy. Emphasis on evolution of slavery and political development; religious, intellectual and cultural life; slave life and resistance; gender and family relations; secession; and the legacy of Southern history. Paquette and Ambrose.

243F Tocqueville's America.
Alexis de Tocqueville wrote one of the most influential assessments ever written about politics and culture in the United States. Tocqueville traveled widely and his insights into religion, slavery, private association, democratic procedure, individualism, and the American mind and character have been recited and explored by legions of writers. This course will center on reading Tocqueville's work to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the text. Paquette.

[244S] Conflict and Coexistence in South Asia.
This course examines interaction, competition, conflicts and dialogues between Hinduism and Islam to study the process through which these traditions shaped the socio-religious and political landscape of South Asia. Themes include the emergence of new syncretic traditions, practices and rituals, kingship, conversion, communal conflict and riots, and modernity. The course problematizes understanding of these themes by combining secondary literature with primary (literary, epigraphic, and archaeological) sources and adopts an integrative approach. (Same as Religious Studies 244.)

[245S] The American Frontier.
The geography of the continental United States seems like the result of inexorable sea-to-sea growth. This survey of environmental history of the American frontier aims to upset this inevitability and approach US expansion as the accumulation of foreign landscapes that Americans shaped into the United States. The course challenges the idea of a westward-moving frontier that disappeared in 1890, instead following it as it moved overseas, into popular culture, and even beyond the earth.

[247] "Cracking India:" Historical and Literary Perspectives on Partition.
Interdisciplinary seminar investigates the 1947 partition of British India into the independent nations of India and Pakistan from multiple perspectives and drawing on a variety of sources, including conventional and oral histories, memoirs, fiction and film. Focus on gender and class as well as religious differences. Prerequisite, an introductory course in either history or literature.

[251F] Nineteenth-Century America.
A survey of American life from 1789 to 1900, with emphasis on the origins of political parties, the growth of democracy, sectional conflict and war, and the transformation of America from an agrarian to an industrial state.

[254S] Recent American History: The United States, 1941 to the Present.
A survey of American political, economic, cultural and social life from the start of the Second World War to the present. Topics include the Second World War, the Cold War, McCarthyism, the Civil Rights Movement, the sixties and their aftermath, and the Reagan Revolution and its aftermath.

256F Islam and Modernity in South Asia.
This course develops a nuanced understanding of Islam and its role in shaping socio-religious and political landscape of modern and pre-modern South Asia. Questioning misconceptions of Islam, it examines its mideast origins, Qura'n, theology, law, religious practices, Shi'i and Sufi traditions, expansion in South Asia, colonialism, and modernity. Readings include secondary, literary, architectural and archaeological sources. Not open to students who have taken RELST 213: Islam and Modernity in South Asia (Same as Religious Studies 256.) Abhishek Amar.

[265] Priests, Warriors and Commoners in Early/Ancient India.
A factual and analytical study of South Asia History from the rise of the Indus Valley Civilization to the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate (ca. 2500 BCE-1200 CE). Introduces major processes, narratives and interpretations of early India by exploring urbanization, empires and regional states, mercantile and trade networks, and development and transformation of Buddhism and Hinduism. Adopts a multi-disciplinary examination of literary, archaeological and art-historical sources. Of interest to students of history, art history, literature and religion.

[270] Emperor, Courtier and Samurai in Japan.
Study of the politics, religion and literature of classical Japan, the social and political impact of the emergence of the samurai in medieval Japan, and "restoration" of imperial authority during the Meiji era. Focuses on interaction with Chinese culture in the formation of Heian politics and religion; the contestation for political power at the imperial court; tensions among the court, the shogun and regional samurai vassals in the medieval era; and the emergence of a nativist reaction to Chinese influence beginning in the 18th century.

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275S Modern Middle Eastern History.
A survey of the Middle East from Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798 to the present. Examines Muslim responses to European imperialism, political and cultural developments, the impact of the Cold War and the continuing Arab-Israeli rivalry. Keller.

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277S Conservative Thought in the United States.
Survey of major conservative thinkers and their writings from the founding of the United States to present. Focuses on various strains of right-of-center thinking, the growth of a mainstream conservative worldview in the antebellum South, the rise of the modern conservative movement under William F. Buckley after World War II, and fissures in the movement after the fall of the Soviet Union. (Same as Government 277.) Paquette.

[278S] South Africa, 1652-1994.
Survey from the first Dutch settlement on the Cape in 1652 through the first multiracial democratic election in 1994. Issues will be explored through the experiences of indigenous peoples, such as the Khoisan, Zulu and Xhosa, migrant laborers from Asia, the “coloured” community, Afrikaners and British settlers. (Same as Africana Studies 278.)

280F Emperor, Gentryman, and Commoner in Ming-Qing China.
Study of Chinese cultural and social history during the Ming and Qing dynasties (thirteenth to the nineteenth century) from the perspectives of the emperor, the Confucian gentry, and commoners. Focuses on the ritual roles of the emperor and civil officials, and the range commoner experiences from rural farmer to urban merchant. Considers the intersection of religious practices among the emperor, Confucian officials, and commoners; the decline of the medieval aristocracy and emergence of the Confucian gentry; the family, gender, and footbinding. No previous knowledge of Asian history required. Wilson.

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[282S] Rebellious Union: Britain and Ireland, c 1688-1998.
A survey of the political relationship between Britain and Ireland, situated in the broader context of the British Empire. Examines this relationship from the colonial era through the Good Friday agreement of 1998, with emphasis upon the development of national cultures, political parties, rebel movements, and government institutions and policies. Prerequisite, one 100-level history course or consent of instructor.

[283] A Modern History of Japan: From Samurai to Salaryman 1800-1989.
This survey course focuses on the economic, social, and political changes from 1800-1989 for people living in what became the nation of Japan. The modern period is characterized by political upheaval, changing societal roles, creation of a multi-ethnic empire, the Asia-Pacific War, and Japan’s emergence as an imperial power. Beginning with the twilight years of the samurai in 1800, we will follow Japan’s transition from the Tokugawa period to the end of the Showa period marked by the death of Emperor Hirohito in 1989.

[284] Great Britain, the Empire and Immigration, 1783-1997.
A survey of British politics and society from the end of the war with the American colonies to the election of New Labour. Emphasis on imperial and post-colonial issues, including the influence of the empire on British daily life, ideologies of race and immigration. Prerequisite, one 100-level history course or consent of instructor.

285S Modernity and Nationhood in China.
Examination of the social and cultural forces contributing to the decline of imperial institutions beginning in the 19th century, as found in the Taiping Rebellion, cultural interaction with Western missionaries, traders, and military and nationalist revolutions in the 20th century. Readings and class discussions consider the coherence of nationhood in Chinese identity and reexamine the “Western impact” as a force in the formation of modernism in China. Not open to first-year students. Wilson.

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286S The Byzantine Empire.
For more than 1000 years following the breakup of the Western Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire, with its capital at Constantinople, preserved the legacy of imperial Rome in the medieval Mediterranean. This lecture-discussion course will explore the history of the Byzantine Empire, from the reign of Constantine the Great (ca. 330) to the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. Religious, social, and political developments will be considered, along with medieval Greek contributions to the economy and culture of the wider Mediterranean world. Eldevik.

290F Classics of Modern Social Thought.
Reading and discussion of major thinkers in the development of modern Western social thought. Authors include Machiavelli, Rousseau, Burke, Marx, Darwin, Weber, Freud, Mannheim and de Beauvoir. Emphasis on class presentations, debates, book notes and class protocols. Works examined from historical, sociological, psychological and philosophical perspectives. (Oral Presentations.) Prerequisite, one course in history or sociology. May count toward a concentration in either history or sociology. (Same as Sociology 290.) Maximum enrollment, 24. Kelly and Chambliss.

295F The Crusades.
For nearly 400 years, Christian knights dreamed of recovering Jerusalem and the Holy Land from its Muslim occupiers. Their campaigns, though mostly unsuccessful, profoundly transformed the Mediterranean world and relations between Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Through a close examination of the primary sources, this course will study the origins and progress of Crusades as both a series of military campaigns as well as a framework medieval observers from the Latin, Greek, and Arabic worlds used to understand interreligious conflict and interaction. Eldevik.

297S Christianity in America, 1600-1890.
Examination of Christianity in America from the era of European settlement to the end of the 19th century. Topics include encounters with Native American religions, revivalism, sectarianism, slavery and antislavery, religion and politics, theological developments, popular beliefs and practices, and the rise of unbelief. (Same as Religious Studies 297.) Ambrose.

301S The Philosophy of History.
An examination of such enduring issues as causation, general laws, fact and explanation, objectivity, pattern and meaning, uniqueness and the role of the individual. Readings from classic and contemporary texts, with emphasis on the practical, historiographical implications of philosophical theories. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, two 200-level history courses or one 100-level history course and one course in philosophy. (Same as Philosophy 301 .) Maximum enrollment, 20. Kelly.

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[303] A History of Work.
How do we understand the rise of modern industrial society? Examines the narrative of industrialization in a comparative historical framework. Emphasis is placed on the history of industrialization through an examination of the rise of key industries, the formation of middle and working classes, the role of colonialism in economic development, and the relationship of class and gender in the modern world. Students read monographs, as well as a variety of primary sources including memoirs, government documents, and reformist literature. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200-level history course or consent of the instructor. Maximum enrollment, 12.

[305] Nomads, Conquerors and Trade: Central and Inner Asia.
Study of Central and Inner Asia's place among more familiar Asian cultures such as China and India. Centrally located but distant from the great empires, Central Asia has transmitted peoples, ideas and goods across the Eurasian continent. It has also been home to rich cultures that have combined Turkic, Persian, Chinese, Mongol and Russian influences. Examines dominant cultural patterns across time and place as well as the modern history of the region. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, 180, or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20.

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[309] Seminar on Asian Temples in a Virtual World.
Examination of Asian religious practices in ritual, bodily, and spatial contexts. Discussion of textual and visual sources on ritual interactions with gods; use and layout of temples and altars, including offerings, music, dance, representations of deities; meditation and internal alchemy. In addition to reading conventional textual sources, students will be instructed in digital historical methods to collect and analyze materials on the web. Writing assignments include short essays and a final research project of the student's design to be presented with text and images in digital form. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, 100-level History course, course on Asian history or religion, or instructor's consent. (Same as Religious Studies 309.) Maximum enrollment, 12.

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[312F] The History of Hamilton College.
Examination of the history of Hamilton College from its founding as the Hamilton Oneida Academy in 1793 to its bicentennial celebration in 2012. Topics include Samuel Kirkland’s mission to the Oneida, curricular reform, the College in the wider world, the rise and fall of Kirkland College, campus life and politics. Students will make extensive use of the College archives and write a research paper on some aspect of Hamilton’s history. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200 level U.S. history course or permission of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[314S] Nazi Germany.
Origins of the Nazi movement, Hitler and the Nazi Party, daily life in the Third Reich, origins and causes of World War II and the Holocaust. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, 212 or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[318] Competition and Coexistence: Exploring Inter-Religious Dynamics in South Asia.
Examination of interactions among diverse religious traditions of South Asia and of issues linked to socio-religious identities and political landscape. Analyzes interactions and dialogues among multiple religious orders including the Vedic Priests, Renouncer orders (i.e., Buddhism and Jainism), Hinduism and Islam. Investigation of strategies adopted by different religious traditions to compete, critique, borrow, modify and appropriate literary and material cultural elements from each other, examining literature, epigraphs, sacred imagery and reconfigurations of sacred landscape. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one history course. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[320] Power and Lordship in Medieval Europe.
Examines the social and economic development of early European society, with a focus on peasant life, ecclesiastical institutions and aristocratic power in the context of contemporary medieval intellectual debates about justice, order and inequality in a Christian society. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200-level history course. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[325] "The Making of American Scripture".
An intensive examination of the relation between the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution from the time of the founding to the end of the Civil War. How did the founders and framers understand the relation? What key political and legal events changes that understanding? How did leading thinkers and activists frame the ideas of liberty and equality? What role did slavery play in the debate? Did Abraham Lincoln change the meaning of the Union? (Writing-intensive.) First-year students can register only with permission of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20.

326F Rebels, Radicals and Reformers in Pre-Modern Europe.
Tackles the problem of religious deviancy and political dissent in Europe between about 1000 and 1650 with several key questions in mind: How did people cope with the conflicting demands of authority and social justice in the world, and reconcile flawed earthly institutions with the idea of an eternal heavenly order? How can modern historians recover the intentions and thoughts of people whose ideas were often intentionally scrubbed from the historical record? Readings will consist of primary source material as well as recent scholarly literature on the subject. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200-level history course. Maximum enrollment, 20. Eldevik.

333S Philosophical Masters of Ancient China.
Careful reading of ancient classical Confucian and Daoist texts to examine their teachings on methods of realizing human perfection. Discussion of a range of translations of each classical text to consider the problems of (1) translation as a mode of interpretation and (2) the critical role that different commentaries have on the meaning of the original text. Class sessions devoted to discussion of primary texts, secondary sources, and doctrinal debates in which students assume roles as proponents of a particular philosophical master. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 100-level history course, Asian Studies 180 or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20. Wilson.

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[335S] Hunger in History.
Examines how people have understood the significance of hunger in terms of health, religion and politics. Addresses the significance of hunger at different times and in different cultural contexts. Subjects include the fasts of religious women in medieval Europe, the experience of famine, the development of nutritional science, the creation of government programs to combat hunger, and the use of hunger in both militant and non-violent political protests in the 20th century. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200-level course in history or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[337S] Seminar: Confucian Traditions.
Examination of Confucian thought and ritual practice from classical times to the early 20th century. Emphasis on reading philosophical and ritual texts in translation in order to understand the various ways that Confucians understood their place in Chinese society. (Writing-intensive.) (Oral Presentations.) Prerequisite, relevant coursework in history, Asian studies or religious studies, or consent of instructor. (Same as Philosophy 337.) Maximum enrollment, 20.

[338] Seminar: Heroes and Bandits in Chinese History and Fiction.
Readings from several of China’s greatest literary works (including histories, novels, opera and poetry) such as Sima Qian’s Records of the Grand Historian and The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Reexamination of widely held assumptions about history and fiction with discussions and writing assignments on the role played by different genres as sources for knowledge about the past. Emphasis on authors’ attitudes in shaping narrative accounts of heroes, bandits, assassins, scholars, women and emperors. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, 280, 285 or consent of instructor. (Same as Comparative Literature 338.) Maximum enrollment, 12.

[339S] Columbus's Library: Texts, Travel and the Medieval Imagination.
Examination of works of geography, natural history, travel, and exploration that informed how medieval readers imagined the wider world and its peoples as Europe embarked on an era of unprecedented expansion and growth. Special attention to texts read by Columbus in preparation for what he thought would be a voyage to East Asia, such as Pliny's Natural History, Travels of Marco Polo, and Travels of Sir John Mandeville, but other traditions, such as Alexander Romance, the legend of Prester John, apocalyptic theology, Crusader histories, and Arab travel literature will also be considered. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, One course in history or Asian studies. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[341F] Studies in American Colonial History: Writing Early American History: The Puritans and Their Progeny.
Examines the history of the Puritan movement from the English Reformation to New England Unitarianism and Transcendentalism in the nineteenth century and the ways in which modern scholars have analyzed that movement. We will focus on the work of Perry Miller (1905-1963), whose interpretation of the Puritans reshaped scholarly understanding of them and their influence on American history. We will examine how Puritan historiography, since Miller’s death, has grappled with his legacy and altered our understanding of the Puritans’ contributions to and place in American history. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, One 200-level course in American history or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20.

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[342] The Minds of the Old South: Southern Intellectual History, 1700-1877.
Investigation of the intellectual and cultural history of white and black southern Americans from 1700 through Reconstruction. Topics include religious beliefs and practices, literary production and consumption, political and social thought, and relation of southern thought to national and transatlantic developments. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200-level history course or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[345S] The Soviet Union as a Multi-National State.
The USSR claimed to be a revolutionary political form: a state based on the voluntary union of workers from over 100 different nationalities. The Bolsheviks intended to lead Russian peasants, Kyrgyz nomads and Chechen mountaineers together into the bright Communist future. What they actually achieved is another question. Explores the concepts of nation, empire and modernization in the Soviet context. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, 221, 222 or consent of instructor. (Same as Russian Studies 345.) Maximum enrollment, 20.

[350S] Slavery and the Civil War.
A study of the causes and consequences of the Civil War, with emphasis on antebellum society, sectional tensions, Abraham Lincoln and military strategy. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, 251, Africana Studies 101 or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[353S] Seminar on the Sixties.
Examination of a critical period in recent U.S. history, with special attention to the Civil Rights Movement, the Vietnam War, campus protest and the origins of the women’s movement. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200-level course in American history. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[354S] The History of American Exploration and Outdoor Adventure.
The history and culture of the United States is bound up with that of the discovery and exploration of the New World. A focus on the meaning of that legacy for Americans from the 19th century on. Topics covered will include military exploration and surveys of the west, the development of a wilderness and a conservation ethic, and the growth of mountaineering and similar outdoor endeavors. Prerequisite, one 200-level U.S. history course. Maximum enrollment, 12.

[355S] Hindu Scriptures.
This course exposes students to the Hindu texts to develop a sense of their historical development, key Hindu ideas, and the complex and diverse ways of expressing religiosity. The course examines selected written, oral and performed texts of the Hindu tradition in a variety of social, historical and religious contexts. Readings include translations from a variety of Indian literary genres ranging from the Vedas, Upanishads and epics to devotional poetry and modern oral narratives. Art, music, dance, and films related to the texts will supplement the primary sources. (Same as Religious Studies 355.)

[359] The Early Republic, 1787 to 1815: From Philadelphia to New Orleans.
An intensive examination of the early history of the great American experiment in republican government from the Constitutional Convention to the Battle of New Orleans. Focus on the origin and ratification of the Constitution, rise of the first party system, slavery and its expansion, foreign relations, Jefferson's presidency, and War of 1812. The Federalist to be read in its entirety. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 100-level history course. Maximum enrollment, 12.

[360F] Mythical Histories in China and Japan.
Examination of how history is used to legitimate or critique institutions such as the Japanese emperor, philosophical regimes such as Confucian orthodoxy, social practices such as women’s duties in an extended Chinese family or Marxist revolution. Emphasis on scrutiny of primary Chinese and Japanese texts in translation based on recent cultural theories such as deconstruction. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, 270, 272, 280, 285 or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[363S] Seminar: Colonial Encounters in Asia.
Examines encounters between Asian and Western peoples from Marco Polo to the present. Consideration of problems of orientalism/occidentalism and reassessment of the myth of the Western “impact” on Asia by learning how Asian peoples understood the West and the ways that Europe, too, was affected by these encounters. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, One 200-level course in History or Asian Studies or consent of instructor. No knowledge of Asian history required. Maximum enrollment, 12.

[370] Topics in South Asian History: Photography, Women, and Labor in India.
Exploration of the theory and process of museum exhibition curating, taught in conjunction with the preparation of a photography exhibition the Wellin Museum. Emphasis on the early 20th century history of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, including that of the textile industry, nationalist politics, social reform, and women’s labor, as well as the history photography and the repurposing of archival imagery. Students will work collaboratively on exhibition materials, including image selection and layout, catalog and wall text production, and multimedia materials such as podcasts Prerequisite, One 200-level history course or permission of the instructor. Maximum enrollment, 12.

[374] Making the Constitution.
The U.S. Constitution is the oldest operating written constitution in the world and has achieved the status of a “sacred” text in the American polity. This course will explore the forces and concerns that led to the Philadelphia Convention, the progress of the Convention itself, ratification, and, briefly, the modern debate on originalism. In doing so, it will discuss in some detail the provisions of the Constitution and their historical origin and significance. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, One 200-level history course, or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20.

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375F Gandhi: His Life and Times.
An examination of primary sources written by Mohandes K. Gandhi and his associates, as well as Gandhi’s autobiography and other scholarly works. Emphasis will be placed on different approaches to understanding and capturing Gandhi’s philosophy, his significance and his legacies in India, South Africa and the larger world. Topics include non-violence, the role of the individual in history and nationalist historiography. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200-level history course, or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 12. Trivedi.

376F Black business: African-American culture and the making of the US economy.
Seminar investigates the economic and material underpinnings of African-American culture from the end of slavery through the late-twentieth century, focusing in each historical era on the systems of production, distribution, and consumption that ensured its centrality to the US and world economies. Discussion topics will include the economy of antebellum nostalgia, the commercialization of gospel, “race records,” and hip-hop, African-American beauty firms, and the growth of the black press. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, One 200-level history course. Maximum enrollment, 20. Day Moore.

[377] Violence, Law, and Justice in the Middle Ages.
Telling a prisoner that you’re going to “get medieval” on them does not have positive connotations. At the same time, medieval texts like Magna Carta are held up as having made fundamental contributions to liberal political theory. This writing intensive seminar invites students to explore key issues in the development of legal thought and practice in the medieval West that help us understand how various communities and institutions addressed the problem of violence, administered justice, and created social and religious order through law. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, One 200-level history course. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[378F] Topics in American Biography.
Previous topic -- Founders and Their Progeny: American Political and Social Thought, 1750-1865. Examination of biographical studies of and writings by individuals who shaped and challenged American political and social thought from the era of the Revolution to the Civil War. Emphasis on author's interpretation of subject's relation to historical context, varieties of biographical methods and close analysis of subjects' writings. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200-level course in American history. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[383S] Topic: The Irish Republican Army.
This course examines how scholars have reconceived the history of the Irish Republican Army over the past 40 years. It illuminates the nationalist historiography of the I.R.A., then demonstrates how this was challenged by the "revisionist" movement in Irish history, by feminist scholarship, and, more recently, by innovative archival research and interdisciplinary study. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200-level history course, or consent of the instructor. Maximum enrollment, 12.

[387F] International Government.
Examines ideas and institutions of international government in the 19th-20th centuries. It considers how international government was conceived as a means to facilitate global commerce, administer international law, and prevent war. Within the context of European imperialism, international government developed to serve Europe’s great powers, but it transformed after the Second World War into a forum of Cold War politics and anti-imperial protest. The course places emphasis on the tension between state sovereignty and the universal principles of internationalism, especially human rights. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, A 200-level history course. Maximum enrollment, 20.

[390S] Self, Power, Trauma in Recent Theories of History.
This course examines key issues in recent theories of history, including the problem of language in historical narrative, representing experiences of others, trauma, the nature of “power,” construction of the self as an ethical subject, post-colonialism, and secularism. Readings by Foucault, LaCapra, Chakrabarty, Derrida, and others. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, Consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 12.

392S Paris Noir: Twentieth-Century Black Internationalism.
This course explores the connections between African-American and African diasporic histories in Paris. Building on scholarship on the modern Atlantic World, which has given new spatial frameworks for histories of slavery and empire, the course resituates twentieth-century African-American history within the transnational, diasporic, and imperial networks that intersected in Paris. Discussions will draw on a wide range of disciplinary perspectives and primary sources, including literature, music, film, and visual art, to consider the development of diasporic politics, the vogue for black exoticism, jazz, the Harlem Renaissance and négritude, civil rights and decolonization, and the global dimensions of Black Power. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, A course in history, Africana Studies, or consent of the instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20. Day Moore.

[394S] Topics in American Religious History.
Topic for 2013: “Religious Communal Societies in America, 1620-1950.” Utilizing the valuable holdings of Burke Library’s Communal Societies Collection, this seminar will focus on the various religious communal experiments, especially the Shakers, and their role in American religious history. All students will conduct research in the Communal Societies Collection. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200-level history course or consent of instructor. (Same as Religious Studies 394.) Maximum enrollment, 20.

[395] The Crusades in History and Literature.
From the twelfth century the Crusades and crusading ideology produced a remarkable body of historiography and literature that provides insight into changing social, cultural, and religious sensibilities in Europe and the Muslim world. This seminar asks students to engage in close reading and analysis of medieval and modern sources reflecting the intellectual, religious, and political questions raised in representing the Crusades and the perceived existential struggle between Christendom and Islam. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, One 200-level history course. (Same as Religious Studies 395.) Maximum enrollment, 20.

[396F] Seminar: History of Gods.
A comparative study of how gods have been conceived and venerated in early Mediterranean and Asian societies, principally Greece, Rome, India, China, Korea and Japan. Students read liturgical texts, hymns and myths to consider the variety of conceptions of gods and the range of ritual forms used to venerate them across the Euro-Asian continent. Draws from theoretical readings to consider such problems as polytheism and monotheism; myth and ritual; sacrifice; ritual performance; shamanism; cult; and devotion. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, consent of instructor or relevant coursework in Asian studies, classics, history or religious studies. (Same as Religious Studies 396.) Maximum enrollment, 16.

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[397] Lives Against Apartheid.
Examines the experiences and objectives of protest against the apartheid regime in South Africa through the autobiographies and memoirs of leading participants in the anti-apartheid movement. Illuminates the different aspects of resistance to apartheid and demonstrates how autobiographies now contest the politics of protest and the legitimacy of authority in the post-apartheid, “non-racial” South African democracy. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, one 200-level history course or consent of instructor. 278 strongly recommended, though not required. Maximum enrollment, 20.

401F Research Seminar in History.
Critical evaluation of scholarship on a selected topic, culminating in a historiographical essay, or primary research on a selected topic, culminating in an original, interpretive essay. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, concentration in history or consent of instructor. Open only to seniors. Maximum enrollment, 20. Isserman.

402S Research Seminar in History.
Critical evaluation of scholarship on a selected topic, culminating in a historiographical essay, or primary research on a selected topic, culminating in an original, interpretive essay. This section is open only on an as-needed basis. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, H401 and consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20. Keller.

550F,S Senior Thesis.
A project limited to senior concentrators in history, resulting in a thesis supervised by a member of the department. Prerequisite, A GPA in the concentration of 3.7 or higher and one year of college-level study of a foreign language. Required of candidates for departmental honors. Grant.

551S Senior Thesis.
A project limited to senior concentrators in history, resulting in a thesis expanded beyond the work of 550. Prerequisite, 550 and consent of instructor. Keller.