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College Catalogue

Biology

Faculty

Wei-Jen Chang
David A. Gapp
Herman K. Lehman
Heather S. Mallory
Joseph A. Martens
Michael L. McCormick
Sue Ann Miller
William A. Pfitsch (chair)
Patrick D. Reynolds
Ernest H. Williams

Special Appointment
Kenneth M. Bart

A concentration in biology consists of 12.5 credits, including 9.5 credits in biology, two credits in chemistry and one credit related to science in society. Biology courses must include 101 and 102 (or 115), at least four additional courses with laboratories, and 550 and 551. Chemistry courses must include 120 (or 125) and 190. The science and society course must be chosen from a list of courses provided by the department that discuss issues in public policy or ethics related to science or technology. With prior departmental approval, up to two credits may be transferred into the concentration from study off-campus. No more than one credit of independent study may be applied to concentration. Students preparing for graduate studies in biology should take at least one year each of calculus and organic chemistry and should have knowledge of statistics. Departmental honors are determined on the basis of distinguished achievement in coursework and in the Senior Thesis.

A minor in biology consists of five courses, which must include 101 and 102 (or 115) and at least one course at the 300 level or higher. The following courses do not count toward a concentration or minor in biology: 120, 150, 215, 216 and 218. Biology 101 and 102 are open to juniors and seniors.

101F General Biology: Genetics and Evolution.
An introduction to the life sciences. The diversity of living organisms, the molecular basis of life, the mechanisms of inheritance, and the process and patterns of evolution. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. (Quantitative and Symbolic Reasoning.) Maximum enrollment, 60. The Department.

102S General Biology: Cells to Ecosystems.
An introduction to the life sciences with a focus on how structure promotes function at cellular, organismal, and ecosystem levels of organization. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. (Quantitative and Symbolic Reasoning.) Maximum enrollment, 60. The Department.

115F Biology: Fundamentals and Frontiers.
Introduction to the study of biology at the college level for students with a strong background in biology and chemistry. Intensive study of selected topics that illustrate the fundamental principles of, and new developments in, the biological sciences. Three hours of class/discussion and three hours of laboratory. (Quantitative and Symbolic Reasoning.) (Proseminar.) Prerequisite, consent of department. Maximum enrollment, 32. Gapp and McCormick.

[120S] Female Biology.
An opportunity for non-science majors to learn more about themselves by engaging in topics that are part of several biology courses. Selected biological topics and concepts are considered using human and non-human female examples. Discussion of body organization is supplemented with limited dissections. Three hours of class, discussion, presentation and some laboratory experiences. May not be counted toward the concentration or the minor. (Oral Presentations.)

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150F Environmental Science and Society.
An introduction to environmental science. Emphasis on scientific understanding of the causes and implications of, and potential solutions for, problems that result from human interactions with the environment. Current environmental problems examined from an ecological perspective. (Same as Environmental Studies 150.) W Pfitsch.

[180S] Tropical Field Studies.
Study of the environment, ecology and human-environment interactions of Belize. 75 minutes of class per week and required Spring Break field trip. Extra cost. One-half course credit. Maximum enrollment, 16.

200S Scientific Digital Imaging.
An introduction to digital imaging techniques used to acquire, enhance and derive quantitative information from a variety of image sources. Use of Adobe Photoshop and other software to produce publication-quality images and extract data from digital images. Topics include digital photography, artifact removal, 3D rendering and quantitative analysis. Prerequisite, two science courses. Maximum enrollment, 12. Bart.

215F Genetics and Society.
Study of the science of genetics with particular focus on its application in society, e.g., in medicine and agriculture. Discussion of the social, ethical and legal issues arising from the Human Genome Project. Three hours of class and occasional time in lab. May not be counted toward the concentration or the minor, and not open to students who have completed 248. Martens.

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216S Introduction to Public Health.
A multidisciplinary examination of the facets that underlie determinants of our collective health. The history of public health and core public health sciences, including: the biomedical basis of disease; analytical methods; social, behavioral and economic factors; environmental issues; and the future of public health. Three hours of class. May not be counted toward the concentration or the minor. Lehman.

[218F] Industrial Ecology.
The science of sustainability. Using a variety of tools students will assess the total environmental impact associated with the manufacturing, use and disposal of a variety of common consumer goods. Key concepts to be introduced include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, product stewardship, product dematerialization, industrial metabolism and industrial symbiosis. Popular strategies for reducing the environmental burden of industrial activities will also be examined. (Proseminar.) Prerequisite, any 100-level course in science, government or economics. May not be counted toward the concentration or the minor in biology. (Same as Geosciences 218 and Environmental Studies 218.) Maximum enrollment, 24.

221S Microbiology.
Introduction to microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, single-cell eukaryotes (yeast, algae, protozoa) and viruses, with an emphasis on prokaryotic metabolism and ecology. Basic laboratory techniques, including isolation, cultivation and identification of microbes. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115 and Chemistry 120 or 125, or consent of instructor. McCormick.

222S Anatomy, Histology and Biomedical Terminology.
Thoughtful dissection to understand functional gross anatomy with related basic histology and biomedical terminology. Mammalian-human emphasis. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. (Oral Presentations.) Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 18. Miller.

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[228F] Invertebrate Biology.
Survey of animal diversity, including marine and freshwater fauna, parasites, insects and the origin of vertebrates. Emphasis on morphology, physiology, ecology and evolution. Three hours of class, three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, or consent of instructor.

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237F Ecology.
The relationships among living organisms and their physical environment, population growth and regulation, interspecific interactions, community and ecosystem structure and function, and biogeography. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, or consent of instructor. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory or field exercises. Maximum enrollment, 20. Pfitsch and E Williams.

240F Plant Diversity.
Evaluation of the diversity of form and function of vascular and non-vascular plants in an evolutionary context. Field exploration of the diversity of local plant communities. Laboratory and greenhouse study of external and internal structure of terrestrial plants. Three-hours class and three hours of laboratory or field exercises. (Writing-intensive.) (Oral Presentations.) Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20. Pfitsch.

248S Genes and Genomes.
Study of the structure and function of genetic material using classical, molecular and genomic analyses. Consideration of the social, medical and agricultural applications of genetic technologies. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 32. Martens.

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260S Geomicrobiology.
Interaction of microbes and minerals from early in Earth's history to the present day. Emphasis on the diverse habitats of bacteria and archaea, mineral biogenesis and dissolution, and the roles that microorganisms play in geochemical cycles. Special topics will include geochemical influences on microbial evolution and community structure, life in extreme environments and the role of geomicrobiology in restoration of contaminated environments. Three hours of class and two hours of laboratory/discussion. Required weekend field trip. Prerequisite, Biology 102 or 115, or Principles of Geoscience or consent of instructor. (Same as Geosciences 260.) The Department.

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[262S] Geomicrobiology of Antarctica.
The habitats of bacteria and archaea in Antarctica and the roles that these microorganisms play in geochemical cycles. Particular emphasis on the adaptations of microbes to the extreme environmental conditions of Antarctica. Special topics will include geochemical influences on microbial evolution and community structure, biogeography of microbes and life in extreme environments Prerequisite, Either an introductory course in Biology (101, 102 or 115) or Principles of Geoscience. One semester of chemistry is desirable but not required. 0.5 credit (Same as Geosciences 262.)

270S Biological Chemistry.
A survey of the chemical and physical nature of biological macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; biochemistry of enzyme catalysis; bioenergetics and regulatory mechanisms. Principles and techniques of experimental biochemistry, focusing on isolation methods and techniques for analyzing structure and function. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. (Quantitative and Symbolic Reasoning.) Prerequisite, 190. (Same as Chemistry 270 and Biochemistry/Molecular Biology 270.) Cotten.

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290F Paleontology.
A study of the origin of life, evolution and the fossil record. Topics include the general principles of paleontology, nomenclature, taxonomy, identification techniques, fossilization processes, plants, microfossils, invertebrates and vertebrates. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory with field trips. Prerequisite, Principles of Geoscience. (Same as Geosciences 290.) Maximum enrollment, 24. C Domack.

298F,S Biology Research.
Independent research under the supervision of a faculty member. May be repeated for credit. Students may count up to one credit of biology research toward the concentration. One-quarter, one-half, or one credit per semester. No senior concentrators. Prerequisite, Instructor's permission. The Department.

[325] Immunology.
Examination of the molecular cell biology underlying development and function of the immune system. Emphasis on the recognition of pathogens, the co-evolution of host and pathogen, and the immunological basis of human disease as studied by modern techniques. Includes discussion of the normal function of the immune system as well as infectious disease, autoimmune disorders, allergic disorders, immunodeficiency syndromes, transplantation, vaccination and cancer. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115. Not open to students who have taken 460.

330S Neural Plasticity.
An analysis of the anatomical, physiological and chemical changes that occur in the nervous system as a function of experience and development. Laboratory work includes intracellular and extracellular recording from muscle cells and neurons. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. (Oral Presentations.) Prerequisite, 205 or Biology 102 or 115. (Same as Psychology 330 and Neuroscience 330.) Maximum enrollment, 18. Weldon.

331S Vertebrate Physiology.
Fundamentals of vertebrate physiology, emphasizing the functional and homeostatic controls that regulate nerve and muscle tissue, and the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and endocrine systems. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, junior standing or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 20. Gapp.

333F Human Development.
Study of developing form and function and the cellular and molecular aspects that influence embryogenesis. Laboratory emphasizes microscopy using standard examples from vertebrate and invertebrate development with observation of live embryos. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. (Oral Presentations.) Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 18. Miller.

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[340F] Plant Physiology.
The physiology of flowering plants. Includes plant growth and development, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, water relations and stress physiology. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, or consent of instructor.

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341S Animal Behavior.
Examination of animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective. Topics include how animals forage for food, choose a place to live, defend themselves from predators, communicate with others, choose mates, raise young, and interact socially. Laboratory focus on experimental design and the use and practice of the scientific method through observations of live animals. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115. Mallory.

346F Biochemistry.
The advanced study of biochemical pathways in living organisms, with emphasis given to gene regulation and metabolism of four major macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Includes in-depth discussion of contemporary developments in molecular biology and comprehensive training in molecular techniques. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, 115, or consent of instructor. (Same as Biochemistry/Molecular Biology 346.) Chang.

352F Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis.
Theory, practice and application of the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to selected research projects. Prerequisite, two laboratory courses in science. (Same as Geoscience 352). Open to juniors and seniors with consent of instructor. Bart.

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355F Molecular Methods in Microbial Ecology.
Research project based introduction to molecular methods for assessing the diversity and activity of microorganisms in natural and engineered environments. A workshop format class with emphasis on quantitative measurement of environmental variables in microbial habitats (environmental chemistry), diversity of microbial metabolic strategies, and DNA based characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities. Three hours of class. Required weekend field trip. Prerequisite, 101, 102 or 115, Chemistry 120 or 125 or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 12. McCormick.

357F Cellular Neurobiology.
A study of the fundamental functions of eukaryotic cells. The interrelationships of cellular structure and function, the cell cycle, protein trafficking and cellular communication will be examined through the study of neurons, the basic unit of the nervous system. Additional topics will include specialized activities of neurons. Three hours class and three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, 115, or consent of instructor. (Same as Neuroscience 357.) Lehman.

[380] Parasitology.
A survey of eukaryotic parasites (excluding bacteria and viruses) of humans and other animals. Morphology, classification, pathology and diagnosis of medically important parasites will be discussed, as will ecological and evolutionary aspects of parasites in human and non-human hosts. Laboratory exercises will include examination of preserved material as well as dissection of invertebrate and small vertebrate hosts to collect, examine and preserve live parasites. Three hours of class and three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 32.

[437S] Seminar in Tropical Ecology.
In-depth study of basic and applied topics in tropical ecology including biodiversity and the structure and function of tropical ecosystems. Discussion of readings from the literature. (Oral Presentations.) Prerequisite, 237 or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 12.

441F Seminar in Evolutionary Biology.
Study of natural selection, behavioral evolution, genetic variability, molecular evolution, speciation and macroevolution. Discussion of readings from the literature. (Writing-intensive.) Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, and junior standing. Maximum enrollment, 12. E Williams.

443S Seminar in Bioinformatics.
Study of computer-based approaches to molecular investigations: sequence variation, molecular evolution, functional and comparative genomics, and computational biology. Both literature-based lecture and training on the use of bioinformatic software are included. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, or consent of instructor. 215, 248 or 346 recommended. Chang.

448F Seminar in Molecular Genetics.
Study of the molecular mechanisms of inheritance through critical analysis of recent literature in molecular genetics. Emphasis on the scope and limitations of the genetic approach for studying biological processes. Three hours of lecture/discussion. Prerequisite, 248, or 346, 357, 443, or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 12. Martens.

449F Seminar in Animal - Plant Interactions.
Study of the ongoing co-evolutionary arms race between plants and animals, covering interactions such as herbivory, pollination, and fruit and seed dispersal. Literature focused on current issues including the pollinator crisis, genetically-modified organisms, invasive species, and global climate change. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115, or consent of instructor. Maximum enrollment, 12. Mallory, H.

[460] Seminar in Immunobiology.
Examination of the molecular cell biology underlying development and function of the immune system. Emphasis on the recognition of pathogens, the co-evolution of host and pathogen, and the immunological basis of human disease as studied by modern techniques. Case studies describing infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, allergic disorders, immunodeficiency syndromes, transplantation, and cancer will be discussed. Lecture and discussion focused on readings from the literature. Prerequisite, 101 and 102, or 115. Maximum enrollment, 12.

550F Senior Thesis I.
An intensive library and laboratory or field research project carried out in association with a faculty member. (Oral Presentations.) Prerequisite, acceptance by the department of a written proposal. The Department.

551F,S Senior Thesis II.
Completion and presentation of the senior research project. Includes written and oral presentation. (Oral Presentations.) Prerequisite, 550. One-half credit. The Department.

552F,S Senior Thesis III.
A continuation of the senior research project for a more in-depth study of special topics in biological research. Open to students whose project in 550 warrants additional investigation. To be taken concurrently with 551. Prerequisite, 550 and consent of instructor. One-half credit. The Department.

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