“Language shapes the way we think and determines what we think about”
As a development factor of composition, a nonnative speaker’s pervious English language instruction program may facilitate or hamper the cross-cultural similarities and differences in rhetoric and style found within his or her academic writing. Reformulation is a tutoring strategy that enables learners to hear the differences between their version and the native speaker’s version, to see the similarities, and to learn from realizing the discrepancies.
In a Writer’s Reference Sixth Edition, (Bedford/St. Marin’s) Diane Hacker advocates that both native (NS) and nonnative speakers (NNS) of English share similar challenges with verbs:
For a native speaker, most sentence level skills such as spelling, punctuation and grammatical accuracy are established early in life and the awareness of them declines as they become relatively automatic.
For a nonnative speaker, systemic issues relate to innate skills and characteristics of a native speaker such as the grammatical and mechanical practices:
Lower Level Buttrick Hall
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