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  • Engage the audience
  • Focus the presentation
  • Preview the presentation’s structure or content


For each major section of your presentation, follow the “4 S Structure”1:

  • Signpost the point (“First I'm going to point out the problem with...” “My second argument is that...” “Now let me explain my methodology.”)
  • State the point clearly and succinctly
  • Support the point with data, cases, description, relevant studies, etc.
  • Summarize the point


  • Summarize and refocus
  • Close
  • Audience questions

For more details on structural and content elements, see Engaging Your Audience.

1 Adapted from Joyce Ferguson, "Speaking Across the Curriculum at UNCG," in Communication Across the UNCG Curriculum: A Guide for Faculty, ed. Karen Meyers, University of North Carolina— Greensboro, 2002.


Office / Department Name

Oral Communication Center

Contact Name

Amy Gaffney

Oral Communication Center Director

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